LIFE SCIENCE

Anti-rhizophrosis turnip high-quality reference genome released

An evolutionary model of cr gene in the long-term fight against rhizomatous bacteria in Brassica brassica plants Is provided by the Research Group

Recently, Professor Zhang Chunyu and Professor Yang Qingyong of Huazhong Agricultural University collaborated with the team of Professor Park Zhongyun of Shenyang Agricultural University to release the ECD04 reference genome of European turnips against root swelling disease, revealing the evolution of the rhizome disease resistance gene of Brassica, and providing an important reference for the cloning, label development and resistance breeding of anti-root disease genes of cruciferous crops. The research paper was published online in the Journal of Plant Biotechnology.

Cruciferous is one of the most prosperous families of plants, containing many important vegetables, oilseeds and forage crops such as cabbage, kale, rape, mustard greens, radishes, etc. Cruciferous crops are widely distributed and have a large area in China, accounting for more than 40% of the total area of oil crops and more than 30% of the vegetable area. Rhizophalosis, known as “cruciferous cancer”, is a soil-borne disease caused by rhizomes, which usually causes a large number of tumors to form in the root system of crops, which hinders crops from absorbing nutrients and water from the soil, and in severe cases, the whole plant dies. Every year, about 3.2 million to 4 million hectares of cruciferous crops in China suffer from the harm of root swelling disease, resulting in a 20% to 30% reduction in production.

How to prevent and control rhizophropathy has become a major problem in the current cruciferous crop disease resistance breeding, and the selection and cultivation of rhizome disease resistant varieties is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for controlling rhizophropathy. The Brassica A genome is thought to be the main source of resistance to rhizophalosis, with most of the resistance loci derived from European turnips. However, there is still a lack of a high-quality reference genome of anti-rhizoosis (CR) materials, which seriously hinders the mining and application of anti-rhizophal genes in cruciferous crops.

The study used the third-generation PacBio sequencing technique combined with chromosomal conformation capture (Hi-C) technology to successfully assemble the genome of European anti-rhizophrenia ecdymology ECD04 and obtained a reference genome sequence at the chromosome level. With the help of high-quality reference genomes, the study successfully systematically integrated 28 reported anti-rhizophosis loci, identified a total of 15 anti-rhizophosis loci, and identified 62 anti-rhizophosis candidate genes. The resistance of the candidate genes CRA3.7.1 and CRA8.2.4 to radiculopathy in the two loci was verified by transgenic, bacteriotic experiments and RT-qPCR. On this basis, the study found that multiple candidate CR genes all came from the U-segment of the ancestral genome by comparing genomics and phylogenetic analysis. Through collinear analysis with the salt mustard genome, two genes, CRA3.7.1 and CRA8.2.4, which have been shown to have anti-rhizophal, were already present in the ancestral genomes prior to the tripling of brassica. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the CRA3.7.1 and CRA8.2.4 sequences of the disease-susceptible Cabbage and Rapeseed genomes had large structural variations and transposon insertions, which may be related to the loss of their resistance.

Based on the above research results, the paper proposes an evolutionary model of root swelling bacteria and brassica crops. Genome-wide tripling doubled the resistance genes in the ancestral genome, enhancing the plant’s resistance to rhizoos. In the process of long-term interaction and evolution of brassica plants and pathogens, three modes of interaction coexist: 1) the host and the pathogen have reached a state of dynamic equilibrium, and the anti-rhizophroid disease gene has been retained by strong positive selection; 2) the resistance to rhizoosis in the host has gradually increased, limiting the spread of rhizophal disease bacteria until it gradually disappears, which eventually leads to the loss of anti-rhizophosis gene function; 3) human activities have caused brassica plants to spread to other areas without rhizophosis, resulting in a gradual loss of resistance gene function. (Source: China Science Daily Wang Fang)

Related paper information:https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13827

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