LIFE SCIENCE

Cell reports on new advances in the study of cellular immunity in marine animals


Recently, Cell Reports, an international academic journal, published the latest research results of the Institute of Oceanography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on programmed death of marine animal cells.

Schematic diagram of pyroptosis activation pathway and immune regulation of wrinkled disc abalone cells Courtesy of the Institute of Oceanography

Gasdermin is the executor of cytopyrosis. For a long time, cytopyrosis research has mainly focused on vertebrates, and in 2020, the research team found that invertebrates only found functional gasdermin in corals, which was published in the cover article in the international academic journal Science Immunology. Then, the research team continued to dig deeper and found that the largest animal phylum, the molt, did not have gasdermin, and the second largest animal phylum shellfish had gasdermin. However, the immune function of shellfish gasdermin is unknown. 

Wrinkled abalone is one of the most economically valuable aquatic shellfish in China. The team found that caspase-3 specifically shears the wrinkle disc abalone, producing two forms of N-terminal fragments; The activated N-terminal fragment mediates cell pyroptosis and has bactericidal functions. Gasdermin N-terminal fragments can target the nucleus, induce nuclear cleavage and genomic DNA release, form extracellular traps, and exert antibacterial functions. Inhibition of gasdermin activation promoted the colonization of pathogens in wrinkled abalone tissue, resulting in a significant decrease in host survival.

This study revealed for the first time the activation mechanism of shellfish cell pyroptosis and its anti-infection immune effect, which provided a new understanding for shellfish immune defense, and also provided new ideas for the creation of shellfish species and disease prevention and control. (Source: China Science News, Liao Yang, Wang Min)

Related paper information:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112414



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