LIFE SCIENCE

Feasts and famines: “Will live” the bacteria talk about strategy ——The research on the metabolism and environmental adaptation mechanism of the abyss microorganism has been advanced


Recently, Professor Fang Jiasong of Shanghai Ocean University has made significant progress in the metabolic strategy of bacteria adapting to the deep-sea environment based on the genome analysis of a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the sedimentary biosphere of the world’s deepest trench (challenger abyss). The relevant research results have been published in Microbiome, a top microbiology journal, with Liu Rulong, an associate researcher at the School of Marine Sciences of Shanghai Ocean University, as the first author, and Liu Rulong and Fang Jiasong as co-corresponding authors.

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A note on the genomic function of MAG of Curva aeruginosa Courtesy of the interviewee

The deep sea is the main body of the ocean, contains most of the microbial biomass on the planet, and is a key place for the remineralization and long-term storage of organic matter in the marine biosphere.

“Deep-sea microorganisms are the main drivers of biogeochemical cycles such as marine organic carbon remineralization, yet their survival and metabolism are greatly controlled by the overall nutrient-poor but cyclically fluctuating conditions of deep-sea organic matter.” Fang Jiasong told China Science Daily, “At present, it is not clear how microorganisms at home and abroad adapt to the extreme environment of the deep sea, including this complex and changeable organic matter situation.” ”

For the first time, the team delved into the metabolic potential of the dominant bacterial taxa in the sediments of the abyssal trenches and also the dominant taxa in the deep sea world. The metagenomic assembly genome (MAG) of 62 Phyllobacter aeruginosa was reconstructed from a 9 metagenomic dataset of the Challenger Abyss sediment in the Mariana Trench.

“These MAGs represent six new species, four new genera, one new family, and one new order in the anaerobic jomonas and dehalococcus orders.” Liu Rulong said, “The study found that these MAGs are widely distributed in deep-sea waters and surface sediments, and have in situ activity, indicating that they have potential marine ecological importance.” ”

Researchers digging deeper into the metabolic functions of these novel Curva aeruginosa found that the bacteria are mainly heterotrophic and have a very wide metabolic substrate spectrum. In addition to their ability to degrade a variety of highly active organic matter (such as simple sugars, amino acids, etc.), they can also metabolize a variety of refractory organic sulfur and organic halogenated compounds.

This result reveals for the first time that Aerobium aeruginosa has a complete hydrolysis or oxidative degradation pathway for a variety of inert organic compounds, including aromatic compounds (e.g., parabens), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., fluorene), PCBs (e.g., 4-chlorobiphenyls) and organochlorine pesticides (e.g., chloroalkanes, chlorocyclohexane). In addition, these organisms show the potential to synthesize energy storage compounds such as trehalose and have regulatory modules in response to changes in nutritional conditions.

Based on these metabolic characteristics, the research team proposed that Curva angus aeruginosa may follow a “feast and famine” metabolic strategy: that is, active organic matter can be preferentially consumed and stored in the cell when organic matter is abundant, and survival is maintained by using stored energy and degrading inert organic matter in the case of poor organic matter.

“The study expands understanding of the metabolic processes of Deep-Sea Aerobicus aeruginosa, underscoring its importance in the deep-sea carbon, sulfur and halogen cycles. The high plasticity of the metabolic potential of Curva angus aeruginosa may provide an advantage for its survival under the conditions of variable and heterogeneous organic matter in the deep sea. These metabolic functions of Curva aeruginosa have important application potential in environmental governance and ecological restoration. Fang Jiasong said. (Source: China Science Daily Zhang Shuanghu)

Related paper information:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-022-01263-6



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