New progress has been made in the basic research of quantum mechanics

Li Chuanfeng, Huang Yunfeng, and others from the academician team of Guo Guangcan of the University of Science and Technology of China and the Spanish theoretical physicist Marc-Olivier Renou have experimentally verified the true multibody non-local nature based on the theoretical framework of local operation and shared randomness (LOSR), and the results show that all the associations generated in nature cannot be explained by two-body or three-body non-local associations. The relevant results were recently published in the internationally renowned journal Physical Review Letters and were selected as the cover article of the issue.

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Physical Review Letters Cover Article Photo courtesy of the University of Science and Technology of China

Quantum mechanics allows for non-local associations between particles, i.e. quantum alocality. Quantum alocality is an important resource for the realization of various quantum information processes. For multibody systems, true multibody alocality is considered to be the strongest non-local association that can be exhibited in a multibody system.

True multibody anon-locality tests often rely on violations of inequalities under the framework of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). In such a test, however, it is often assumed that the probability distribution of joint measurements between different observers follows a no-signal condition, classical communication is prohibited, and therefore true multiplex-based alocality based on LOCC is not well defined.

In quantum resource theory, LOCC is not the only free operation that can be used to define entangled resources, and after removing classical communication, a more natural definition is based on the theoretical framework of LOSR.

In the experiment, the research group first verified the non-locality of the three-body entanglement structure. The LOSR local model of the three-body system allows for shared randomness between the three-body and allows for unbounded associations between any two bodies, that is, allowing their associations to be quantum associations, or more extensive associations allowed by generalized probability theories that do not rely on the description of quantum mechanics.

The research group, together with Marc-Olivier Renou et al., improved the LOSR non-local inequality proposed in the previous related theoretical work, proposed a more robust inequality for the common white noise in multiphoton experiments, and used the self-developed “sandwich type” high-fidelity multiphoton entanglement source to verify the true trisomy LOSR non-local with a violation of 26.3 standard deviations.

The research group further violated the true tetrasomy LOSR inequality in the four-body case, and the experiment excluded the local model based on shared randomness and three-body generalized association, and demonstrated the true four-body non-locality.

These experimental results show that non-local associations between two or three bodies alone cannot explain all the associations that occur in nature. The inequalities proposed in this work can be extended to arbitrary N-body situations, and the method of preparing high-fidelity entangled sources lays the foundation for experimentally demonstrating the delocality of greater quantum systems. (Source: China Science Daily Wang Min)

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