Progress has been made in the interface design of efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

Perovskite solar cells have low cost and high photoelectric conversion efficiency, and are considered to be one of the new generation photovoltaic technologies. The development of efficient, stable and large-area perovskite solar cell technology is the main development goal at present, which usually requires the optimization and regulation of the interface energy level structure and defect density, especially for the upright structure (n-i-p structure), the energy level mismatch between the hole transport layer material (spiro-OMeTAD) and perovskite, and the surface defects generated during the preparation process will lead to serious non-radiative compliance loss. Therefore, it is important to understand the quantitative relationship between interface energy level position, defect density, and device performance, and to develop suitable interface control materials.

In view of this, the team of Ye Jichun, a researcher at the Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the previous research on perovskite solar cells, has made new research progress in the interface regulation of efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. Based on the 2D/3D perovskite heterojunction design, the team found that the interfacial energy level difference of 0.2 eV can increase the tolerance of the device to interface defects by 3 orders of magnitude, revealing the quantitative relationship between perovskite solar cell interface field passivation and chemical passivation. Furthermore, the team found that by designing the types of halogens in 2D perovskites, the perovskite interface energy level difference can be controlled and adjusted, and the formed 2D perovskites can significantly passivate the surface defects and inhibited ion migration of perovskites. Based on this, by optimizing the 2D perovskite precursor, a small-area cell with an efficiency of 25.32% (certified efficiency of 25.04%) and a large-area small module cell (29cm2) with an efficiency of 21.48% were obtained, and showed excellent steady-state output stability, and still maintained 90% of the initial efficiency after 2000 hours of continuous output at the maximum power point. The research results provide a theoretical and experimental reference for the development of suitable interface regulation methods and the preparation of efficient, stable and large-area perovskite solar cells.

The research results were published in Advanced Materials as Visualizing Interfacial Energy Offset and Defects in Efficient 2D/3D Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells and Module. (Source: Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Fig. 1 Quantitative relationship between interfacial energy level difference, defect density and device performance based on perovskite heterojunction design

Figure 2 Optoelectronic performance of 2D/3D perovskite heterojunction design

Figure 3 Effects of halogen ratio and type in 2D perovskites on device performance

Figure 4 Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells based on 2D/3D perovskite heterojunction design

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