MEDICINE AND HEALTH

Researchers create a new whole tumor cell vaccine platform


Whole tumor cell vaccine (TCV) is a classic individualized tumor immunotherapy, due to its weak immunogenicity and large individual differences in immune response, it is urgent to develop new concepts and technologies through interdisciplinary to achieve on-demand immune efficiency.

Recently, the State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering of the Institute of Process Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (hereinafter referred to as the Institute of Process Engineering) and the School of Chemical Sciences of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences have cooperated to create a new whole tumor cell vaccine platform, which implements near-infrared illumination at the inoculation site according to the progress of the tumor, so as to achieve the best pulse immune efficiency. The work was published in Nature Communications on July 26.

Mechanism of action of near-infrared irradiation to regulate the immune response of whole tumor cell vaccine (Photo provided by the research team)

Oncology vaccines are promising tumor immunotherapies by mobilizing the body’s immune system to fight tumors. Among them, the whole tumor cell vaccine contains all potential tumor antigens of the patient, which can reduce immune escape through a polyvalent immune response, and then achieve more accurate personalized immunotherapy.

However, researchers have seen that in the past, whole tumor cell vaccines needed to maintain the immune response through empirical multiple vaccinations, and the patient’s tumor samples were more precious, which made the preparation and storage of vaccines difficult, and it was difficult to give full play to the immune effect for individual patients.

In the face of the above challenges, under the leadership of Ma Guanghui, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Wei Weiyan, a researcher, researchers from the State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering of the Institute of Process Engineering carried out cross-collaborative research with Professor Tian Zhiyuan of the School of Chemical Sciences, University of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the research foundation of tumor immunotherapy and biological dosage form engineering.

The research team first developed a new whole tumor cell vaccine preparation process, which loaded nanoparticles with photothermal effects into tumor cells, induced tumor cells to produce endogenous immune adjuvant heat shock protein through near-infrared light, and formed “light-controlled whole tumor cell vaccine (LN-TCV)” after repeated freeze-thaw.

After a single immunization, NIR illumination induces a warm response at the inoculation site to produce a mild inflammatory effect, which in turn recruits antigen-presenting cells and promotes subsequent anti-tumor immune responses.

On this basis, the research team also proposed a new index (FTGR) for monitoring the fluctuation of tumor growth rate, so as to rationally guide the optimal time to provide near-infrared illumination at the inoculation site, so that the pulse synergy can accurately match the development process of the tumor.

The above-mentioned LN-TCV has shown a very significant therapeutic effect in a variety of cell-derived tumor xenograft models (CDX) and humanized patient-derived tumor xenograft models (PDX), which proves the advanced and superior of the new concept of “photocontrolled immunity” in tumor vaccines.

According to the researchers, the above results are still preclinical studies, and the actual clinical efficacy still needs to be further verified. In view of the versatility and flexibility of the construction of this system, in future translational research, it is hoped to realize the expansion of whole tumor cell vaccines from tumor cells to mixed cells of tumor tissues, and can also expand clinical application scenarios through wearable patch LEDs and remote control systems to achieve more convenient and efficient personalized treatment.

Meng Jiaqi, a doctoral student at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lv Yanlin, an associate researcher at the Institute of Process Engineering, and Powell, a doctor from the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, are the co-first authors of the paper, while Wei Wei, a researcher at the Institute of Process Engineering, Ma Guanghui, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Tian Zhiyuan, a professor at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, are the co-corresponding authors.

This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, the National Key R&D Program and the Strategic Leading Science and Technology Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (Source: China Science News Gan Xiao)

Related paper information:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-40207-y



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