MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

Scientists have successfully explained the phenomenon of W boson overweight with dark matter models


Recently, Fan Yizhong, a researcher at the Purple Mountain Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Cai Yuelin, a researcher, and a doctoral candidate, Tang Tianpeng, in cooperation with Nanjing Normal University, used the overall fitting method developed by themselves to analyze the results of W boson overweight in detail, and found that this anomalous signal is strongly related to dark matter. The research results were published in the top international physics journal Physical Review Letters under the title “Inert Higgs dark matter for CDF II W-boson mass and detection prospects”, which is also the first theoretical interpretation paper accepted by the journal to publish W boson masses.

Astronomical and cosmological observational evidence suggests that there is a large amount of nonluminescent matter in the universe, which we call dark matter. Dark matter accounts for 85% of the total matter of the universe and plays an extremely important role in the formation and evolution of the universe. Therefore, finding more evidence of dark matter and determining its properties is one of the most important tasks in astronomy, particle physics and cosmology, and one of the directions in which major breakthroughs in basic scientific research in the 21st century may be made.

Recently, after a decade of analysis, the CDF-II collaboration group of FermiLab published the latest experimental results of the W boson mass in the journal Science: 80.4335±0.0094 GeV, which has a measurement accuracy of one in ten thousandths and is by far the most accurate measurement in the world. The results of all current experiments measuring the mass of the W boson are shown in Figure 1. As we all know, the W boson and its neutral partner Z boson are medium particles that transmit weak interactions in nature, and are an important part of understanding the mechanism of electron-weak symmetry and the origin of elementary particle mass. The W boson mass measured by the CDF-II cooperation group has 7 standard deviations from the predicted values predicted by the Standard Model theory, which is likely to imply the existence of new physics beyond the standard, which has received widespread attention from physicists around the world.

Figure 1: Summary of all current experimental results for measuring the mass of the W boson, with gray columnar regions representing the standard model’s theoretical predicted values and margins of error.

Figure 2: On the left, the dark matter mass interval (red area) satisfies both the gamma ray exceedance and the antiproton excess at the same time; Observation prospects (blue region) of the sm-like Higgs resonance annihilation process on the direct detection of dark matter by sm-like Higgs particles; On the right is the observable expectation (green area) of the co-annihilation process of dark matter particles and sublight-neutral Higgs particles on the high-brightness hadron collider.

The inert double Higgs duality model (i2HDM) is a minimal dark matter model that extends only the Higgs dithermal state of a dark region on the basis of the Standard Model. So, in addition to the Standard Model Higgs particles, the model contains two neutral Higgs particles (S, A) and a pair of Xenomorph-charged Higgs particles (H±), the lightest of which the neutral Higgs particles (S) are dark matter particles. Based on the inert double Higgs binary model, Fan Yizhong found that when the mass of dark matter particles is between 54 and 74 GeV, quantum correction can naturally explain the W boson mass excess, and is consistent with all other existing experimental results. What’s even more interesting is that without introducing any fine parameter adjustments, such dark matter particles would produce detectable GeV gamma-ray and antiproton signals in the Milky Way, which are likely to have been observed by Fermi-LAT and AMS-02 (Figure 2 left), which are the previously widely discussed silver-core GeV gamma-ray and antiproton overruns. In addition, this dark matter model predicts the existence of two processes: the resonance annihilation of the Standard Model Higgs particles (SM-like Higgs) and the annihilation of dark matter particles and sublight neutral Higgs particles (A). Signals from both annihilation processes are highly testable in both the Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiment (Figure 2) and the High Brightness Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Experiment (Figure 2 right). The research results have very important theoretical guidance significance for the future search for dark matter particles. The research work has been funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the leading project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Related paper information:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.091802

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