Summary: Metal halide perovskites open the “optoelectronic era”

As a new type of functional material, metal halide perovskite (MHPs) has undergone rapid development in the past decade and has quickly become the focus of optoelectronic research. Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have both the solutionable processing characteristics of organic materials and excellent photoelectric properties of inorganic materials, with high absorption coefficient, long exciton diffusion distance, high carrier mobility, low exciton binding energy and other excellent photophysical properties, and its optoelectronic devices show simple preparation process, low production cost, excellent flexible performance, outstanding photoelectric performance, etc., and have broad application prospects in the fields of next-generation information display, health care, optical communication and renewable energy.

Recently, Academician Huang Wei and Associate Professor Ran Chenxin of the Institute of Flexible Electronics of Northwestern Polytechnical University and the team of Professor Yingdong Xia of Nanjing University of Technology published a review paper entitled “Metal Halide Perovskite for Next-Generation Optoelectronics: Progresses and Prospects” in the new journal eLight of the Excellence Program.

This review systematically sorts out the development history of perovskite optoelectronics, introduces the origin of the unique photoelectric properties of perovskite materials and their excellent tunable characteristics, reviews the application fields of perovskites in the field of optoelectronics, and discusses the future challenges and corresponding countermeasures.

Figure 1: Artistic rendering: Next-generation optoelectronics leader: flexible and adjustable optoelectronic characteristics of metal halide perovskite-based optoelectronic devices

In a typical ABX perovskite structure , B is located in an octahedral[BX?]?? The center of the cluster forms an octahedral BX frame , and cation A has 12 neighboring atoms , occupying the void of the octahedral BX frame. especially[PbI?]The ??, band maximum (VBM) is formed by the anti-bond orbitals of the Pb(6s) and I(5p) atomic states, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is formed by the anti-bond orbitals of the Pb(6p) and I(5s) atomic states. Thanks to this unique electronic structure, a wide range, flexible and convenient modulation of optoelectronic characteristics of perovskite materials can be achieved through control engineering such as phase transition, dimension, composition and geometry (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Modulation of perovskite photoelectric characteristics based on dimensional engineering.Source: Small 17, 2100809 (2021). Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 872-877 (2016). Light. Sci. Appl. 10, 61 (2021). Adv. Mater. 30, 1801996 (2018). Nat. Rev. Mater. 4, 169-188 (2019)

Increasingly wide range of applications

The efficient regulation of light emission, absorption, modulation and transmission is the core of realizing a variety of functional optoelectronic devices. Due to their excellent and tunable photoelectric characteristics, MHPs are widely used in photoelectric fields such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers as active layers for light harvesting and light emission (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Photophysical processes in different perovskite-based optoelectronic devices。 Source: Trends Chem. 3, 34-46 (2021)

Disruptive transformative technology

Compared with traditional optoelectronic devices, MHPs-based optoelectronic devices show high efficiency, high flexibility, easy flexibility and versatility, so that MHPs-based optoelectronic components have great application potential in energy harvesting/conversion, imaging/sensing, display/communication, manufacturing/medicine and other fields, and are expected to promote the development of revolutionary technologies that benefit mankind, such as functional integration systems, information display systems, electronic communication systems, and health and medical systems (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Disruptive application areas of perovskite optoelectronics

Summary and outlook

Metal halide perovskites have made remarkable research progress and have attractive development prospects. However, although great progress has been made in the fields of photovoltaics, luminescence, detection and lasers, there are still many challenges to the large-scale application of perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. First, in terms of stability, compared with external water, heat and other instability problems (which can be solved by industrial-grade packaging), the internal sources of instability (such as ion migration) of its structure need to be paid more attention. Second, toxicity, is an inevitable challenge for large-scale applications in the future, not only to pay attention to the deployment of pollution prevention measures in the whole life cycle of the device “preparation-application-recycling”, but also to establish corresponding test standards in the future. It is foreseeable that in the next decade, metal halide perovskites will be in the spotlight of the “light” era, contributing to the development of human society. (Source: China Optics WeChat public account)

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